Arnâron Language: Numbers and Plurals

When I said that I don’t have numbers, I wasn’t quite correct – I do have numbers, just no symbols for them.

Numbers

| Number | X-Sampa | Latin characters |
| ————- |:————- |:————-|
| 0 | nuR | nur |
| 1 | ki | ki |
| 2 | do | do |
| 3 | Re | re |
| 4 | so | so |
|5 | at | at |
|6 | mo | mo |
|7 | na | na |
|8 | ge | ge |
|9 | ji | yi |
|10 | ksi | ksi |
|11 | ksi ki | ksi ki |
|12 | ksi do | ksi do |
|20 | doksi | doksi |
|21 | doksi ki |doksi ki |
|22 | doksi do | doksi do |
|23 | doksi Re | doksi re |
|30 | Reksi | reksi |
|40 | soksi | soksi |
|50 | aksi | aksi |
|60 | moksi | moksi |
|70 | naksi | naksi |
|80 | geksi | geksi |
|90 | jaski | jaksi |
|100 | RaJa | ranya |
|200 | do RaJa | do ranya |
|201 | do RaJa ki | do ranya ki |
|1000| zanu | zanu |
|2345| do zanu Re RaJa soski at | do zanu re ranya soski at |
|10000| ksi zanu | ksi zanu |

I originally considered using an octal number system but decided against it for two reasons. First and foremost I wanted to keep it simple, and a base-8 system isn’t the simplest solution, the decimal system is. Secondly, since the inhabitants of Arnâron are biologically humans, and they have ten fingers, they are by far most likely to develop a decimal system.

Uncountables

| X-Sampa | Latin characters | Translation |
| ————- |:————- |:————-|
| nuR | nur | none, no-one |
| kidoRe | kidore | few |
| teRat | terat | some |
| namaR | namar | enough |
| geJa | genya | many, a lot |
| Ruj | ruy | everything, everybody, all |

Plurals

The language uses measure words to form plural or to specify the number or amount of anything. There are five measure words:

| X-Sampa | Latin characters | Used for |
| ————- |:————- |:————-|
| duJa | dunya | humans |
| uRu | uru | living things |
| tai | tai | unliving things |
| Ri | ri | uncountable things |
| wo | wo |abstract ideas |

“Uncountable things” takes precedence over “living things” and “unliving things”, but not over humans or abstract ideas. For example, a crowd of humans always uses the special humans measure word, even if the number of individuals is unknown or even unknowable. On the other hand, grass is uncountable – even though you could in theory count the individual blades of grass. However, if you actually have a defined number of blades of grass, they would become countable living things. This isn’t very different from how English handles it (“grass” versus “blades of grass”).

Another example is land: Land itself is uncountable (“He owns a lot of land”), but it can be countable (“He owns two acres of land”) or even an abstract idea (“Lands of plenty.”)

The use of different measure words may also change the meaning – compare everything: Ruj Ri (“everything uncountable-things-measure-word”) and everybody: Ruj duJa (“everything humans-measure-word”).

To complicate matters further, it is possible to use the measure words in ways other than their literal meaning. For example, one could use the “living things” measure word to quantify one’s enemies. The idea expressed, of course, is that they are “less than human”; a grave insult. It is even possible to go one step further. Referring to enemy soldiers as “unliving things” even further degrades them and implies that they already lost the battle – they are as good as dead.

Context makes a lot of difference as well. For example, one could refer to oneself as a “living thing” as a means to humble oneself, or when one wants to explain that one’s life is unhappy and depressing. A soldier may describe himself as an “unliving thing”, meaning that he is a servant of his master, a tool, a weapon of war, and will serve faithfully without questioning his orders. Or he could use it to show that it is only a matter of time before he will fall in battle.

Some examples

The following are in X-Sampa and native script:

Everything
: Ruj Ri (“everything uncountable-things-measure-word”)

Everybody
: Ruj duJa (“everything humans-measure-word”)

Everywhere
: Ruj Ri doR (“everything uncountable-things-measure-word place”)

Everything – The Universe
: Ruj wo doR (“everything abstract-concepts-measure-word place”)

Two women
: do duJa jina (“Two humans-measureword woman”).

A lot of water
: geJa Ri du (“Many uncountable-things-measureword water”)

I really need more words…

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